With 42 painted figures and 260 features engraved in the rock, the Roca dels Moros (el Cogul, les Garrigues) is undoubtedly one of the most important cave sites in the Iberian Peninsula. The area has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1998.
This area of Les Garrigues has been inhabited continuously by humans since the Paleolithic period and the cave was used for about 5000 years as a place of worship. The last hunter-gatherers (8th - 5th millennium BC) left behind paintings known as Levantine art. Later, from the 5th- 2nd millennium BC, Neolithic groups covered up the reliefs in the rock to draw representations of their own beliefs (diverse representations that fall within the classification of schematic art ). Researchers have also identified later inscriptions from the Iberian and Roman periods, though many are illegible.
Among the most important scenes are those related to hunting, with the representation of a human figure carrying a bow and arrow and confronting a boar. There are also various figures of bulls. The uniqueness of the area is displayed above all in the scene known as 'Phallic Dance': a group of women dressed in long skirts and naked bodies grouped in pairs around a man with exaggerated genitalia. This painting is an exceptional representation of a ritual act that reinforces the identity of the cave as a place of worship.